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Internal Medicine

Autoimmune hepatitis

Autoimmune hepatitis

Autoimmune hepatitis is chronic hepatitis associated with hypergammaglobulinaemia and the presence of circulating autoantibodies. In most cases it responds favorably to immunosuppressive therapy. Diagnosis is challenging, in general, all other possible causes of chronic hepatitis should be excluded. The case report describes a case of type 1 autoimmune hepatitis in a 69-year-old patient.

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Aortic dissection

Aortic dissection

A breach in the integrity of the aortic wall allows arterial blood to enter the media, which is then split into two layers, creating a “false lumen“ alongside the existing or “true lumen“. The primary event is often a spontaneous or iatrogenic tear in the intima of the aorta. Disease of the aorta and hypertension are the most important aetiological factors. The aortic dissection is a relatively rare condition, but it may rupture and have fatal consequences. The case report describes a dissection of the descending aorta in a 55-year-old patient.

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author: Katarína Demková, Jana Grofčíková | UPJŠ LF v Košiciach | discipline: Cardiology, Angiology, Internal Medicine | category: Casuistics in image | keywords: aortic dissection, CT aortography | attachment: 2 | viewed: 91x | published on: 1.1.2018 | last modified on: 30.4.2018

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is defined as the combined presence of obesity (BMI > 30kg/m2) with awake arterial hypercapnia (pCO2 > 6.0 kPa / 45 mmHg) in the absence of other causes of hypoventilation. The exact prevalence of OHS in the general population remains unknown, and most prevalence data describe subjects with obstructive sleep apnoea, wherein its prevalence has been estimated to range from 10% to 38% in different groups. On the other hand, patients with OHS often suffer from sleep-related breathing disorders. Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea may reach up to 90-95% in OHS patients.

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Cardiac tamponade due to cardiac metastases

Cardiac tamponade due to cardiac metastases

Cardiac tamponade is a clinical syndrome caused by the accumulation of fluid or gas in the pericardial space, resulting in reduced ventricular filling and therefore decreased cardiac output (Figure 1). The condition is a medical emergency with resultant cardiogenic shock and death if not treated immediately. The presented case report describes a 63-year-old oncological patient who developed cardiac tamponade with the need of pericardiocentesis.

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author: Ivana Trojová | UPJŠ LF v Košiciach | discipline: Cardiology, Angiology, Internal Medicine | category: Casuistics in image | keywords: Cardiac tamponade, Cardiac tamponade | attachment: 5 | viewed: 163x | published on: 4.12.2017 | last modified on: 30.4.2018

Radiology of Gastrointestinal tract (GIT)

Radiology of Gastrointestinal tract (GIT)

The PowerPoint presentation deals with the examination of GIT with X-ray, scintigraphy, ultrasonography and endoscopic techniques. It refers to the typical findings of radiodiagnostic and disease states briefly the possibilities of their treatment. Part of the article is also a test on a given topic, indicating the correct answers.

 
author: Václav Janík | 3.LF UK | discipline: Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Radiology and Imaging, Internal Medicine | category: Presentations | keywords: radiology, gastrointestinal tract, imaging methods, patological findings of GIT | attachment: 2 | viewed: 5041x | published on: 14.3.2011 | last modified on: 23.11.2011
 

Pleuropneumonia

Pleuropneumonia

Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a serious public health concern and a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Despite advances in antimicrobial therapies, microbiological diagnostic tests and prevention measures, pneumonia remains the main cause of death from infectious disease in the world. An important reason for the increased global mortality is the impact of pneumonia on chronic diseases, along with the increasing age of the population and the virulence factors of the causative microorganism.
In 2013, the Global Burden of Disease Study based on data from 188 countries around the world, reported that lower respiratory tract infection was the second most common cause of death. In Europe, mortality rates for CAP vary widely from country to country, ranging from <1% to 48%.

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author: Ivana Paraničová | UPJŠ LF v Košiciach | discipline: Internal Medicine, Respiratory Medicine | category: Casuistics in image | keywords: J18.9 Pneumonia, pneumonia, pleuritis, streptococcus pneumoniae | attachment: 7 | viewed: 126x | published on: 1.1.2018 | last modified on: 16.4.2018

Home mechanical ventilation in a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Home mechanical ventilation in a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a hereditary progressive neuromuscular disorder that is inherited in X-linked recessive pattern. Mutation of dystrophin gene results into a loss of integrity and function of muscular fibres and their replacement by adipose and connective tissue. Muscle degeneration leads to motoric impairment and loss of walk around 12th year of age. Myocardium is also frequently affected. Respiratory muscles impairment and other complications lead to respiratory failure. If left untreated, death occurs around 20th year of life, usually due to cardiac or respiratory causes. Respiratory insufficiency development is treated by mechanical ventilation support.

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Posterior wall myocardial infarction

Posterior wall myocardial infarction

Isolated posterior myocardial infarction is occurring in 3-11% of all infarctions. ST - segment depression in leads V1-V3 suggests myocardial ischaemia, especially when the terminal T - wave is positive (ST - segment elevation equivalent), and confirmation by concomitant ST-segment elevation ≥ 0,5mm recorded in leads V7-V9 should be considered as a mean to identify posterior myocardial infarction. Emergent coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention of the infarct - related artery is indicated.

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author: Marianna Vachalcová | UPJŠ LF v Košiciach | discipline: Cardiology, Angiology, Internal Medicine | category: Casuistics in image | keywords: I21.2 Acute transmural myocardial infarction of other sites, myocardial infarction | attachment: 11 | viewed: 121x | published on: 8.12.2017 | last modified on: 30.4.2018

Imaging methods of urinary tract

Imaging methods of urinary tract

The PowerPoint presentation deals with the examination of urinary tract with X-ray, scintigraphy, ultrasonography and endoscopic techniques. It refers to the typical findings of radiodiagnostic and disease states briefly the possibilities of their treatment. Part of the article is also a test on a given topic, indicating the correct answers.

 
author: Václav Janík | 3.LF UK | discipline: Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Radiology and Imaging, Urology, Internal Medicine | category: Presentations | keywords: radiology, urinary tract, imaging methods, pathological findings of urinary tract | attachment: 2 | viewed: 3452x | published on: 14.3.2011 | last modified on: 2.5.2012

Imaging methods of liver and biliary tract

Imaging methods of liver and biliary tract

This powerpoint presentation is devoted to teaching investigative methods used to display the pathological findings of liver and biliary tract. It deals with radiological, scintigraphycal and endoscopic imaging methods. Presentation shows the algorithm, the possibility of therapeutic effects and possible complications. It also includes a set of test questions.

 
author: Václav Janík | 3.LF UK | discipline: Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Radiology and Imaging, Internal Medicine | category: Presentations | keywords: radiology, liver and biliary tract, imaging methods, patological findings of liver and biliary tract | attachment: 2 | viewed: 2743x | published on: 14.3.2011 | last modified on: 23.11.2011
 
SCHWARZ Daniel, DUŠEK Ladislav. A uniform platform for electronic publishing and sharing the educational content in the network of medical faculties MEFANET [online]. Masaryk University, [2008], [cited 2018-06-20]. Available from WWW: <http://portal.mefanet.cz>. Version 1.9 [2014].